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WASHINGTON Justin Abdelkader Red Wings Jersey , March 17 (Xinhua) -- A fungus that turns bread moldy could potentially play a big role in producing sustainable electrochemical materials for use in rechargeable batteries, British and Chinese researchers said Thursday.


The researchers reported in the U.S. journal Current Biology that the fungus Neurospora crassa, commonly known as red bread mold, can transform manganese into a mineral composite with favorable electrochemical properties.


"This is the first demonstration of the synthesis of active electrode materials using a fungal biomineralization process," said Geoffrey Gadd of the University of Dundee, who led the study.


"(It) illustrates the great potential of these fungal processes as a source of useful biomaterials," said Gadd, also affiliated with Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.


In earlier studies, the researchers showed that fungi could serve as an efficient system for the biomineralization and production of a variety of metal carbonates, including those of toxic metals, which can be easily decomposed into metal oxides through thermal treatment.


In the new study, Gadd's team incubated Neurospora crassa in media amended with urea and manganese chloride and then heated the resulting materials to obtain a mixture of carbonized biomass and manganese oxides.


"We were surprised that the prepared biomass-manganese oxide composite performed so well," said Gadd.


In comparison to other reported manganese oxides in lithium-ion batteries, the carbonized fungal biomass-mineral composite "showed an excellent cycling stability and more than 90 percent capacity was retained after 200 cycles," he said.


"This system therefore suggests a novel biotechnological method for the preparation of sustainable electrochemical materials."


Many efforts have been made to improve lithium-ion battery or supercapacitor performance using alternative electrode materials such as carbon nanotubes and other manganese oxides. But few had considered a role for fungi in the manufacturing process.


Gadd said they'll continue to explore the use of fungi in producing various potentially useful metal carbonates. They're also interested in investigating such processes for the biorecovery of valuable or scarce metal elements in other chemical forms.


The study was funded by the China Scholarship Council and the 1000 Talents Plan with the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography.


SINGAPORE, Dec. 28 (Xinhua) -- Some of the relatives and friends of affected passengers onboard the missing AirAsia flight QZ8501 arrived at the designated relatives' area at Singapore's Changi Airport for updates on Sunday.


The relatives started to show up at a specially designated area for families and friends of the affected passengers in the airport 's Terminal 2 around noon. Changi Airport Group said in the evening that 47 relatives and friends of 57 passengers onboard the missing flight had registered for help at the airport.


One of them who did not give her name said that she had four relatives onboard the flight, including a 12-year-old and a 17- year-old. Another said that her fiance and his family members were on the missing flight.


"Arrangements for local accommodation or for travel to Indonesia have been made for the next-of-kin," Changi Airport Group said in a statement.


Low Swee Seh, chief of a local non-profit health service provider, said some people from his organization stood ready to offer counselling services to families of the affected passengers.


The flight QZ8501 took off from Surabaya, Indonesia at 5:20 a.m. local time (6:20 a.m. Singapore time, or 2220 GMT) and was scheduled to arrive at Singapore's Changi Airport at 8:30 a.m. ( 0030 GMT). Singapore air traffic control was informed at 7:54 a.m. that the flight lost contact with Jakarta air traffic control at 7: 24 a.m. local time on Sunday, according to a statement from the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore.


Authorities said there were 162 people, including 156 passengers, onboard the missing flight. One hundred and fifty-six of them were Indonesian nationals, and there were also a Singaporean national, a Malaysian national, a French and three South Korean nationals.


The Singapore authority said that the flight was in Indonesian flight information region (FIR) when it lost contact with air traffic authorities on Sunday morning.


"The aircraft was in the Indonesian Flight Information Region ( FIR) when contact was lost, more than 200 nautical miles (about 370 km) southeast of the Singapore-Jakarta FIR boundary," it said in a statement.


A flight information region (FIR) is a system of air space division to coordinate the provision of flight information and alerting services. It has nothing to do with sovereign claims over air or maritime space.


The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore also said that search and rescue operations had been activated by the Indonesian authorities from the Pangkal Pinang Search and Rescue office. Judging from the map, the plane was most probably near the Bangka- Belitung Islands of Indonesia when it lost contact with air traffic control.


The Singapore Rescue Coordination Center has also been activated and has offered help to Indonesian authorities.


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